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Anatomy of Hip Bone / innominate bone ( Osteology ) : Ilium , Ischium , Pubis
The pelvis is a bony construction that may be present in each female and male skeletons. The exception to this compound construction, when in comparison with all different bones, is that it has variations which can be categorized by intercourse, each for useful and basic developmental causes. The remainder of the human skeleton differs solely in dimension, which is genetically decided and is often barely bigger in males than in females.
The pelvis is shaped by 4 bones which embrace a pair of hip bones in any other case generally known as innominate bones, the sacrum, which comes with the 5 decrease sacral bones which can be fused collectively and the coccyx which has 4 fused and a single particular person terminal vertebra. The pelvic girdle consists of the hip bones and the sacrum and its operate is to transmit the burden from the higher physique to the decrease limbs whereas permitting the physique to remain balanced. In the meantime, the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis fuse collectively at puberty to type the innominate bones and are joined by the cartilage discovered within the acetabulum.
The left and proper hip bones (innominate bones, pelvic bones) are two irregularly formed bones that type a part of the pelvic girdle – the bony construction that attaches the axial skeleton to the decrease limbs.
The hip bones have three major articulations:
Sacroiliac joint – articulation with the sacrum.
Pubic symphysis – articulation between the left and proper hip bones.
Hip joint – articulation with the pinnacle of the femur.
On this article, we will take a look at the anatomy of the hip bones – their composition, bony landmarks, and scientific relevance.
Composition of the Hip Bone
The hip bone is comprised of the three elements; the ilium, pubis, and ischium. Previous to puberty, the triradiate cartilage separates these elements – and fusion solely begins on the age of 15-17.
Collectively, the ilium, pubis, and ischium type a cup-shaped socket generally known as the acetabulum (literal that means in Latin is ‘vinegar cup‘). The pinnacle of the femur articulates with the acetabulum to type the hip joint.
The ilium is the widest and largest of the three elements of the hip bone and is positioned superiorly. The physique of the ilium varieties the superior a part of the acetabulum (acetabular roof). Instantly above the acetabulum, the ilium expands to type the wing (or ala).
The wing of the ilium has two surfaces:
Inside floor – has a concave form, which produces the iliac fossa (website of origin of the iliacus muscle).
Exterior floor (gluteal floor) – has a convex form and supplies attachments to the gluteal muscular tissues.
The superior margin of the wing is thickened, forming the iliac crest. It extends from the anterior superior iliac backbone (ASIS) to the posterior superior iliac backbone (PSIS).
On the posterior facet of the ilium, there’s an indentation generally known as the higher sciatic notch.
The pubis is probably the most anterior portion of the hip bone. It consists of a physique, superior ramus and inferior ramus (ramus = department).
Pubic physique – positioned medially, it articulates with the alternative pubic physique on the pubic symphysis. Its superior facet is marked by a rounded thickening (the pubic crest), which extends laterally because the pubic tubercle.
Superior pubic ramus – extends laterally from the physique to type a part of the acetabulum.
Inferior pubic ramus – initiatives in direction of the ischium.
Collectively, the superior and inferior rami enclose a part of the obturator foramen – by way of which the obturator nerve, artery, and vein move by way of to succeed in the decrease limb.
The ischium varieties the posteroinferior a part of the hip bone. Very similar to the pubis, it’s composed of a physique, an inferior ramus, and superior ramus.
The inferior ischial ramus combines with the inferior pubic ramus forming the ischiopubic ramus, which encloses a part of the obturator foramen. The posteroinferior facet of the ischium varieties the ischial tuberosities and when sitting, it’s these tuberosities on which our physique weight falls.
Close to the junction of the superior ramus and physique is a posteromedial projection of bone; the ischial backbone.
Two vital ligaments connect to the ischium:
Sacrospinous ligament – runs from the ischial backbone to the sacrum, thus creating the higher sciatic foramen by way of which decrease limb neuro vasculature (together with the sciatic nerve) transcends.
Sacrotuberous ligament – runs from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity, forming the lesser sciatic foramen.
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